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Role of vasopressin in normal sexuality

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1 Role of vasopressin in normal sexuality on Tue Feb 21, 2017 11:27 pm

kpavel

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Overexpression of vasopressin in the rat transgenic for the metallothionein-vasopressin fusion gene.
Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is a major antidiuretic hormone, the overproduction of which causes diluting hyponatremia in humans and is called the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD). To study physiological changes resulting from AVP overproduction and to develop an animal model of hyponatremia, the human AVP gene was expressed under the control of the metallothionein promoter in transgenic (Tg) rats. Analyses of AVP immunoreactivity (irAVP) in the tissues revealed that the transgene is expressed mainly in the central nervous system. Gel filtration showed that irAVP in the brain and plasma was properly processed AVP. AVP purified from the brains of both Tg and control rats also exerted equal bioactivity to generate cAMP in LLC-PK1 cells. The founder rats did not show any physical or anatomical abnormalities. Under basal conditions, Tg rats had high plasma AVP levels (Tg 13.8 +/- 2.5 pg/ml; control 2.7 +/- 1.2 pg/ml; n=6 in both groups; means +/- S.E.M.), decreased urine volume, and normal plasma [Na(+)]. Hypertonic saline injected i.p. did not affect AVP secretion in Tg rats. In response to a zinc-supplemented liquid diet, plasma AVP decreased in control rats, but increased in Tg rats (Tg 32.7 +/- 2.7 pg/ml; control 1.0+/-0.1 pg/ml; n=6), resulting in hyponatremia (Tg 135.2 +/- 2.5 mEq/l; control 140.8 +/- 0.4 mEq/l; n=6). To our knowledge, this is the first transgenic animal to show diluting hyponatremia. This transgenic rat may therefore provide a useful model in which to investigate various physiological alterations resulting from the oversecretion of AVP which involve SIAD, stress response, behavior, and blood pressure.

Primum non nocere: an evolutionary analysis of whether antidepressants do more harm than good.
Antidepressant medications are the first-line treatment for people meeting current diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder. Most antidepressants are designed to perturb the mechanisms that regulate the neurotransmitter serotonin - an evolutionarily ancient biochemical found in plants, animals, and fungi. Many adaptive processes evolved to be regulated by serotonin, including emotion, development, neuronal growth and death, platelet activation and the clotting process, attention, electrolyte balance, and reproduction. It is a principle of evolutionary medicine that the disruption of evolved adaptations will degrade biological functioning. Because serotonin regulates many adaptive processes, antidepressants could have many adverse health effects. For instance, while antidepressants are modestly effective in reducing depressive symptoms, they increase the brain's susceptibility to future episodes after they have been discontinued. Contrary to a widely held belief in psychiatry, studies that purport to show that antidepressants promote neurogenesis are flawed because they all use a method that cannot, by itself, distinguish between neurogenesis and neuronal death. In fact, antidepressants cause neuronal damage and mature neurons to revert to an immature state, both of which may explain why antidepressants also cause neurons to undergo apoptosis (programmed death). Antidepressants can also cause developmental problems, they have adverse effects on sexual and romantic life, and they increase the risk of hyponatremia (low sodium in the blood plasma), bleeding, stroke, and death in the elderly. Our review supports the conclusion that antidepressants generally do more harm than good by disrupting a number of adaptive processes regulated by serotonin. However, there may be specific conditions for which their use is warranted (e.g., cancer, recovery from stroke). We conclude that altered informed consent practices and greater caution in the prescription of antidepressants are warranted.

Jay, did you think how AVP may help or worsen normal processes of arousal or libido? I read v1a is involved in memory. Even endemic memory geek

2 Re: Role of vasopressin in normal sexuality on Wed Feb 22, 2017 9:35 pm

Area-1255

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Admin / Head Writer
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kpavel wrote:Overexpression of vasopressin in the rat transgenic for the metallothionein-vasopressin fusion gene.
Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is a major antidiuretic hormone, the overproduction of which causes diluting hyponatremia in humans and is called the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD). To study physiological changes resulting from AVP overproduction and to develop an animal model of hyponatremia, the human AVP gene was expressed under the control of the metallothionein promoter in transgenic (Tg) rats. Analyses of AVP immunoreactivity (irAVP) in the tissues revealed that the transgene is expressed mainly in the central nervous system. Gel filtration showed that irAVP in the brain and plasma was properly processed AVP. AVP purified from the brains of both Tg and control rats also exerted equal bioactivity to generate cAMP in LLC-PK1 cells. The founder rats did not show any physical or anatomical abnormalities. Under basal conditions, Tg rats had high plasma AVP levels (Tg 13.8 +/- 2.5 pg/ml; control 2.7 +/- 1.2 pg/ml; n=6 in both groups; means +/- S.E.M.), decreased urine volume, and normal plasma [Na(+)]. Hypertonic saline injected i.p. did not affect AVP secretion in Tg rats. In response to a zinc-supplemented liquid diet, plasma AVP decreased in control rats, but increased in Tg rats (Tg 32.7 +/- 2.7 pg/ml; control 1.0+/-0.1 pg/ml; n=6), resulting in hyponatremia (Tg 135.2 +/- 2.5 mEq/l; control 140.8 +/- 0.4 mEq/l; n=6). To our knowledge, this is the first transgenic animal to show diluting hyponatremia. This transgenic rat may therefore provide a useful model in which to investigate various physiological alterations resulting from the oversecretion of AVP which involve SIAD, stress response, behavior, and blood pressure.

Primum non nocere: an evolutionary analysis of whether antidepressants do more harm than good.
Antidepressant medications are the first-line treatment for people meeting current diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder. Most antidepressants are designed to perturb the mechanisms that regulate the neurotransmitter serotonin - an evolutionarily ancient biochemical found in plants, animals, and fungi. Many adaptive processes evolved to be regulated by serotonin, including emotion, development, neuronal growth and death, platelet activation and the clotting process, attention, electrolyte balance, and reproduction. It is a principle of evolutionary medicine that the disruption of evolved adaptations will degrade biological functioning. Because serotonin regulates many adaptive processes, antidepressants could have many adverse health effects. For instance, while antidepressants are modestly effective in reducing depressive symptoms, they increase the brain's susceptibility to future episodes after they have been discontinued. Contrary to a widely held belief in psychiatry, studies that purport to show that antidepressants promote neurogenesis are flawed because they all use a method that cannot, by itself, distinguish between neurogenesis and neuronal death. In fact, antidepressants cause neuronal damage and mature neurons to revert to an immature state, both of which may explain why antidepressants also cause neurons to undergo apoptosis (programmed death). Antidepressants can also cause developmental problems, they have adverse effects on sexual and romantic life, and they increase the risk of hyponatremia (low sodium in the blood plasma), bleeding, stroke, and death in the elderly. Our review supports the conclusion that antidepressants generally do more harm than good by disrupting a number of adaptive processes regulated by serotonin. However, there may be specific conditions for which their use is warranted (e.g., cancer, recovery from stroke). We conclude that altered informed consent practices and greater caution in the prescription of antidepressants are warranted.

Jay, did you think how AVP may help or worsen normal processes of arousal or libido? I read v1a is involved in memory. Even endemic memory geek

Eh, its not the best way to go, too much interaction with electrolytes and possible water retention and hypertension to result...better off going with an Oxytocin peptide.

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3 Re: Role of vasopressin in normal sexuality on Thu Feb 23, 2017 4:54 am

kpavel

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Effect of testosterone and its metabolites upon the level of vasopressin messenger ribonucleic acid in the hypothalamus of the hyperosmotically stimulated male rat.
We previously reported that gonadal steroids modify the expression of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in the hypothalamus of rats administered 2% sodium chloride solution for 5 days. Gonadectomy prevented, and testosterone (T) replacement restored, enhanced AVP mRNA levels in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of male rats receiving this hyperosmotic challenge. The present study investigated the effects of the androgenic and estrogenic metabolites of T on hypothalamic AVP mRNA levels in response to chronic hyperosmolality. Gonadectomized male rats receiving 2% NaCl for 5 days and treated with T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), or DHT+estradiol (E2), but not E2 alone or empty implants, had increased AVP mRNA levels compared to gonadectomized animals receiving tap water. Our results support a role for T and DHT-mediated effects upon the enhanced accumulation of AVP mRNA in the SON of male rats receiving a chronic hyperosmotic challenge.

[Reduction of the pressor effect of fluoxetine after V1A-vasopressin receptor blockade in the conscious rats].
Pharmacovigilance data have reported some cases of arterial hypertension in patients treated with serotonin reuptake inhibitors. This side effect is now called serotonin syndrome. Moreover, some authors have shown that these drugs could reduce, at least in part, the fall in blood pressure (BP) observed in experimental models or in human forms of orthostatic hypotension, suggesting a modulation of the autonomic nervous system by these drugs. These data led us to study in freely moving Wistar rats the mechanisms involved and the putative involvement of autonomic nervous system. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of fluoxetine (5-50 micrograms) induced an increase in BP similar to which was obtained following central administration of serotonin (5-HT) (0.5-5 micrograms). After 5-HT, the pressor effect was immediate (1 min following injection) and involved the baroreflex pathway (bradycardia). The fluoxetine-induced pressor response reached its maximal 1 hour after injection without any significant change in heart rate (HR). At the dose of 10 micrograms i.c.v., fluoxetine significantly increased mean BP by 16 +/- 4 mmHg. This pressor response was partially but significantly reduced by a pretreatment by the alpha 1-adrenoreceptor antagonist, prazosin (500 micrograms.kg-1 i.v.) (+7 +/- 4 mmHg, p < 0.05) or by a V1A-vasopressin receptor antagonist (20 micrograms.kg-1 i.v.) (+5 +/- 3 mmHg, p < 0.05). However, pretreatment by the beta-adrenoreceptor antagonist, propranolol (1 mg.kg-1 i.v.) and the antagonist 5-HT2, ketanserine (5 mg.kg-1 i.v.) did not modify the fluoxetine-induced pressor response. In freely moving rats receiving fluoxetine (10 micrograms i.c.v.), vasopressin plasma levels were significantly higher (+39 +/- 5 pg.mL-1) than in rats receiving saline (100 microL i.c.v.) (+14 +/- 4 pg.mL-1), thus confirming the involvement of vasopressinergic mechanisms in the fluoxetine-induced pressor response. These data suggest that in freely moving Wistar rats, central acute administration of fluoxetine induces a pressor response mediated by both an increase in sympathetic tone and a vasopressin release. This observation could suggest the putative use of alpha 1-adrenoreceptors antagonists and/or V1A-vasopressin receptor antagonists in the treatment of the serotonin syndrome.

4 Re: Role of vasopressin in normal sexuality on Sun Feb 26, 2017 1:24 am

Area-1255

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Admin / Head Writer
Admin / Head Writer
kpavel wrote:Effect of testosterone and its metabolites upon the level of vasopressin messenger ribonucleic acid in the hypothalamus of the hyperosmotically stimulated male rat.
We previously reported that gonadal steroids modify the expression of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in the hypothalamus of rats administered 2% sodium chloride solution for 5 days. Gonadectomy prevented, and testosterone (T) replacement restored, enhanced AVP mRNA levels in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of male rats receiving this hyperosmotic challenge. The present study investigated the effects of the androgenic and estrogenic metabolites of T on hypothalamic AVP mRNA levels in response to chronic hyperosmolality. Gonadectomized male rats receiving 2% NaCl for 5 days and treated with T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), or DHT+estradiol (E2), but not E2 alone or empty implants, had increased AVP mRNA levels compared to gonadectomized animals receiving tap water. Our results support a role for T and DHT-mediated effects upon the enhanced accumulation of AVP mRNA in the SON of male rats receiving a chronic hyperosmotic challenge.

[Reduction of the pressor effect of fluoxetine after V1A-vasopressin receptor blockade in the conscious rats].
Pharmacovigilance data have reported some cases of arterial hypertension in patients treated with serotonin reuptake inhibitors. This side effect is now called serotonin syndrome. Moreover, some authors have shown that these drugs could reduce, at least in part, the fall in blood pressure (BP) observed in experimental models or in human forms of orthostatic hypotension, suggesting a modulation of the autonomic nervous system by these drugs. These data led us to study in freely moving Wistar rats the mechanisms involved and the putative involvement of autonomic nervous system. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of fluoxetine (5-50 micrograms) induced an increase in BP similar to which was obtained following central administration of serotonin (5-HT) (0.5-5 micrograms). After 5-HT, the pressor effect was immediate (1 min following injection) and involved the baroreflex pathway (bradycardia). The fluoxetine-induced pressor response reached its maximal 1 hour after injection without any significant change in heart rate (HR). At the dose of 10 micrograms i.c.v., fluoxetine significantly increased mean BP by 16 +/- 4 mmHg. This pressor response was partially but significantly reduced by a pretreatment by the alpha 1-adrenoreceptor antagonist, prazosin (500 micrograms.kg-1 i.v.) (+7 +/- 4 mmHg, p < 0.05) or by a V1A-vasopressin receptor antagonist (20 micrograms.kg-1 i.v.) (+5 +/- 3 mmHg, p < 0.05). However, pretreatment by the beta-adrenoreceptor antagonist, propranolol (1 mg.kg-1 i.v.) and the antagonist 5-HT2, ketanserine (5 mg.kg-1 i.v.) did not modify the fluoxetine-induced pressor response. In freely moving rats receiving fluoxetine (10 micrograms i.c.v.), vasopressin plasma levels were significantly higher (+39 +/- 5 pg.mL-1) than in rats receiving saline (100 microL i.c.v.) (+14 +/- 4 pg.mL-1), thus confirming the involvement of vasopressinergic mechanisms in the fluoxetine-induced pressor response. These data suggest that in freely moving Wistar rats, central acute administration of fluoxetine induces a pressor response mediated by both an increase in sympathetic tone and a vasopressin release. This observation could suggest the putative use of alpha 1-adrenoreceptors antagonists and/or V1A-vasopressin receptor antagonists in the treatment of the serotonin syndrome.

Makes sense, alpha-1-adrenoreceptors increase serotonin release, and alpha-1-blockers help to reduce Serotonin related Erectile dysfunction.

These links are all same study, but the first one loads quickest/best.

I think they are a great read.  Smile

Arrow https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16728720
Arrow http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.2164/jandrol.106.000547/abstract
Arrow http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.2164/jandrol.106.000547/pdf

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5 Re: Role of vasopressin in normal sexuality on Sun Feb 26, 2017 7:07 am

kpavel

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O, yeah, that was proven with metergoline and way100635 already.

6 Re: Role of vasopressin in normal sexuality on Sat Mar 04, 2017 9:50 am

Area-1255

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Admin / Head Writer
Admin / Head Writer
kpavel wrote:O, yeah, that was proven with metergoline and way100635 already.

Smile

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